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Jun 24, 2024
9 min read

Detailed Comparison of Ethereum, Polygon, Hyperledger Fabric, and Corda

When choosing a blockchain platform for your project, it’s essential to understand the strengths and design principles of various options. This comparison of Ethereum, Polygon, Hyperledger Fabric, and Corda highlights their unique features, consensus mechanisms, privacy models, scalability, and use cases to help you make an informed decision.


Purpose and Design: Ethereum is a public, decentralized blockchain designed for general-purpose applications. It supports a wide range of use cases, from financial services and supply chain management to gaming and digital identity.

Consensus Mechanism: Currently, Ethereum uses Proof of Work (PoW), but it is transitioning to Proof of Stake (PoS) with Ethereum 2.0. PoS aims to improve scalability and reduce energy consumption.

Privacy: Ethereum offers limited privacy as all transactions and smart contracts are public by default. Solutions for enhanced privacy, such as zk-SNARKs and other privacy-focused protocols, are being explored.

Scalability: Scalability is a challenge for Ethereum. Layer 2 solutions (e.g., Plasma, Rollups) and the Ethereum 2.0 upgrade (sharding) are being developed to address these issues.

Smart Contracts: Ethereum supports Turing-complete smart contracts written in Solidity or Vyper. These contracts can execute complex logic and support a wide variety of decentralized applications (dApps).

Governance: Governance in Ethereum is decentralized and managed through community consensus. Changes are proposed through Ethereum Improvement Proposals (EIPs) and debated by the community.

Use Cases: Ethereum is versatile, supporting DeFi (Decentralized Finance), NFTs (Non-Fungible Tokens), DAOs (Decentralized Autonomous Organizations), gaming, and more.

Interoperability: Ethereum has limited native interoperability, but projects like Polkadot and Cosmos aim to enhance cross-chain compatibility.

Transaction Speed: Ethereum’s transaction speed is relatively slow, with a block time of around 15 seconds. This speed is expected to improve with Ethereum 2.0.

Data Distribution: All nodes store the entire blockchain, leading to redundancy and robustness but also scalability challenges.

Security: Ethereum is highly secure due to its large and decentralized network of nodes and miners. However, smart contract security remains a concern, requiring thorough audits and best practices.


Purpose and Design: Polygon is designed to provide scalable, low-cost infrastructure for Ethereum-compatible blockchain networks. It acts as a Layer 2 scaling solution for Ethereum.

Consensus Mechanism: Polygon uses a Proof of Stake (PoS) consensus mechanism for its main chain, with various Layer 2 solutions like Plasma, zk-Rollups, and Optimistic Rollups to enhance scalability.

Privacy: Polygon offers improved privacy options through its Layer 2 solutions, allowing for more private transactions compared to Ethereum.

Scalability: Polygon significantly enhances scalability, offering high throughput and low transaction costs through its multi-chain architecture and Layer 2 solutions.

Smart Contracts: Smart contracts on Polygon are compatible with Ethereum’s EVM, meaning they can be written in Solidity and deployed seamlessly.

Governance: Polygon’s governance involves MATIC token holders, who can propose and vote on changes to the network.

Use Cases: Polygon is ideal for scalable dApps, DeFi, NFTs, gaming, and enterprise applications, providing a bridge between Ethereum’s security and the need for scalability.

Interoperability: Polygon is highly interoperable with Ethereum and other blockchains, enabling seamless asset and data transfers.

Transaction Speed: Polygon offers faster transaction speeds compared to Ethereum, with block times as low as 2 seconds.

Data Distribution: Data distribution on Polygon leverages both the main Ethereum chain and its own sidechains and Layer 2 networks, balancing security and efficiency.

Security: Polygon inherits security from Ethereum while enhancing it through its PoS mechanism and additional Layer 2 protocols.

Hyperledger Fabric

Purpose and Design: Hyperledger Fabric is a private, permissioned blockchain framework designed for enterprise use. It is modular and highly configurable, supporting a wide range of business applications.

Consensus Mechanism: Fabric uses a pluggable consensus model, with options like RAFT (for crash fault tolerance) and Kafka (for high throughput).

Privacy: Privacy is a key feature of Hyperledger Fabric. It supports channels for private communication and private data collections that ensure only authorized parties can access sensitive information.

Scalability: Fabric is highly scalable due to its modular architecture and permissioned nature, allowing for high transaction throughput and tailored performance.

Smart Contracts: Smart contracts in Hyperledger Fabric are called chaincode and can be written in Go, Java, and JavaScript.

Governance: Governance is managed by the organizations or consortiums running the network, allowing for customized policies and rules.

Use Cases: Fabric is used in industries like supply chain, finance, healthcare, and trade logistics, where privacy and control over the network are essential.

Interoperability: Hyperledger Fabric is designed to integrate seamlessly with existing enterprise systems, supporting APIs and SDKs for easy integration.

Transaction Speed: Fabric offers high transaction speeds and low latency, configurable based on the consensus mechanism and network setup.

Data Distribution: Data distribution is flexible, with channels allowing for segmented data sharing among specific groups of participants.

Security: Fabric provides high security through permissioned access, robust identity management, and configurable consensus mechanisms.


Purpose and Design: Corda is a private, permissioned blockchain designed specifically for regulated industries such as finance, healthcare, and supply chain. It focuses on enabling secure, private transactions and smart contracts between known, trusted parties.

Consensus Mechanism: Corda uses a notary service to achieve consensus on transaction uniqueness, preventing double-spending. Validity consensus is achieved through contract verification by the involved parties.

Privacy: Corda excels in privacy, with transactions only visible to the parties involved. Confidential identities further enhance privacy by keeping participant identities secret.

Scalability: Corda is scalable for enterprise use cases, with peer-to-peer transactions that do not require global consensus, thus allowing for high throughput.

Smart Contracts: Smart contracts in Corda are written in JVM-compatible languages like Kotlin or Java. Contracts can include legal prose, making them legally enforceable.

Governance: Governance in Corda is managed by the Corda Network Foundation and individual node operators, allowing for flexible and customizable network policies.

Use Cases: Corda is used extensively in financial services, healthcare, and supply chain, where privacy, security, and compliance with regulatory standards are critical.

Interoperability: Corda is designed for interoperability with existing financial systems and other DLTs, facilitating seamless integration.

Transaction Speed: Corda offers high transaction speeds with low latency, suitable for real-time business transactions.

Data Distribution: Data distribution in Corda is highly selective, ensuring that only the parties involved in a transaction have access to the relevant data.

Security: Corda provides high security through permissioned access, robust identity management, and notary services that prevent double-spending.

Comparison Table

FeatureEthereumHyperledger FabricPolygonCorda
Purpose and DesignPublic, decentralized blockchainPrivate, modular, enterprise-focusedScalable, Ethereum-compatiblePrivate, permissioned for regulated industries
Consensus MechanismProof of Work (PoW)/Proof of Stake (PoS)Pluggable consensus (e.g., RAFT, Kafka)Proof of Stake (PoS) and Layer 2 solutionsNotary service (uniqueness consensus), contract agreement (validity consensus)
PrivacyLimited, all transactions are publicHigh privacy with channels and private data collectionsBalances public access with Layer 2 solutionsHigh privacy, only involved parties access transaction data
ScalabilityLimited, improving with Ethereum 2.0 and Layer 2High scalability with modular architectureHigh scalability with Layer 2 solutionsScalable for enterprise use cases with peer-to-peer transactions
Smart ContractsSolidity/Vyper, Turing-completeChaincode in Go, Java, JavaScriptSolidity, Ethereum-compatibleKotlin/Java, with legal prose integration
GovernanceDecentralized through community consensusManaged by organizations or consortiumsToken holders propose and vote on changesManaged by Corda Network Foundation and node operators
TokenETH (Ether)No native tokenMATICNo native token
Use CasesBroad (DeFi, NFTs, DAOs, gaming)Enterprise (supply chain, finance, healthcare)Scalable dApps, DeFi, NFTs, gaming, enterprise applicationsRegulated industries (finance, healthcare, supply chain)
InteroperabilityLimited native interoperabilityIntegrates with existing enterprise systemsHigh interoperability with Ethereum and other chainsDesigned for integration with existing financial systems
Transaction SpeedRelatively slow, depends on network loadHigh speed, configurableFast with Layer 2 solutionsHigh speed, peer-to-peer transactions
Data DistributionGlobal, all nodes store all dataConfigurable, channels for private dataSelective, based on Layer 2 solutionsSelective, based on involved parties
SecurityStrong, but depends on decentralized networkHigh, due to permissioned networkHigh, leveraging Ethereum’s securityHigh, due to permissioned access and notary services


  • Ethereum: Best for public, decentralized applications with a broad range of use cases. Faces scalability and privacy challenges but is supported by a strong developer community and evolving technologies like Ethereum 2.0.
  • Polygon: Enhances Ethereum by providing scalable and cost-effective solutions. Ideal for scalable dApps, DeFi, NFTs, gaming, and enterprise applications, offering improved transaction speeds and lower costs.
  • Hyperledger Fabric: Tailored for enterprise use cases requiring high privacy, modularity, and permissioned access. Suitable for industries like supply chain, finance, and healthcare.
  • Corda: Designed for regulated industries, offering high privacy and security. Focuses on financial services, healthcare, and supply chain management, with strong interoperability and compliance features.

Each platform has its unique strengths and is designed to address specific needs, making the choice dependent on the particular requirements of a project or application.